The thrust cylinder is one of the most important components in thrust system of the shield machine. The enormous thrust force and radial load makes the cylinder work under bad environment. In this paper, it uses nonlinear finite element method to simulate the thrust cylinder structure of a type shield machine. From the simulation results, the contact stress distribution of the oil cylinder guide sleeve and the deformation of the piston rod are discussed, and then the way to reduce the stress concentration is proposed. It provides the theory basis for the design and check of the thrust cylinder.