As the special soil, turfy soil and peat soil in China contained some similar properties with high void ratio, high water content, high organic content, etc. But turfy soil also had properties which difference from peat soil. In this paper, based on the formation of the cause and geological environment and geomorphologic characteristics of geological in the quaternary, took the typical and widespread turfy soil and peat soil regions for example, systematically discussed the material composition and macroscopic and microcosmic structural features, put further research on the physical chemistry mechanical characteristics. Then the come to the conclusion that the essential reason for difference between turfy soil and peat soil were decomposition degree and organic content. The result that worse engineering properties such as higher the moisture content, porosity, compressibility, internal cohesion and the lower specific weight, consolidation coefficient and permeability were due to the lower decomposition degree and higher organic content of turfy soil than peat soil. It can provide reference to the practical projects of turfy soil to distinguish peat soil according to this characteristic.