Nonsynchronous vibrations (NSVs) with high amplitude levels in the first rotor blades of a multi-stage axial compressor have been observed. The excitation is aerodynamically caused and associated with a unsteady flow field, including sound field. In order to investigate the characteristics of sound field in the axial compressor, the noise inner compressor casing are measured simultaneously with the vibration of the rotor blades on a high pressure compressor component rig testing. The results show that noise with specific frequency structures appear in the axial compressor under a pre-arranged structure adjustment and the specific operating conditions, and the noise spectrum characteristics are analyzed detailedly. Some influence factors such as rotating speed and corrected mass flow rate on noise characteristics are discussed emphatically. The results presented in this paper can be a reference for further understand of the characteristics of unsteady flow field and the effects of the high intensity sound waves on the rotor blades.