The volatile oil of the four different bamboo leaves from Phyllostachys violascens cv.notata, Sinobambusa tootsik (sieb.) Makino, Sasa subglabra McClure and Pleioblastus kongosanensis f.aureostriaus was obtained by steam distillation; their chemical components were separated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The relative percentage content of the components from the volatile oil was determined by area normalization method. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC50) of the volatile oil was tested by the use of Trolox as a control. The experimental results show that there are 15 kinds of compounds which all simultaneity contained in the volatile oil of four different provenances of bamboo leaves. In four different provenances of volatile oil of bamboo leaves, the relative content of eugenol was obviously higher than other components, were 38.47%, 48.73%, 35.85% and 18.40% respectively. The relative content of the total phenolic were 51.96%, 51.78%, 40.06%, 22.81% respectively. The four different bamboo leaves volatile oil all have the ability of scavenging DPPH free radical and the IC50 are 1.16 mg/ml, 1.44 mg/ml, 1.57 mg/ml, 1.71 mg/ml, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil has a positive correlation with the essential oil's concentration. The result of the experiments can provide reference for further research on the chemical components of different bamboo leaves volatile oil as well as for the exploration and utilization of it.