High frequency longitudinal guided waves were used to inspect the anchored rock bolts. Experiments were conducted to find the optimal frequencies for the bolt testing. A broad-band signal was excited at the top end of the bolt, and the power spectral density(PSD) analysis of the bolt end reflected waves was made. Base on that the frequency component of the bolt end reflected waves could be obtain, and the frequencies with higher power spectral density values are the optimal ones. At optimal frequencies, the guided wave attenuates more slightly than it is at other frequencies and the bolt end reflected waves can be clearly acquisitioned. Experimental results show that the optimal frequencies of guided wave in a free bolt and in an anchored bolt are quite the same, and they are mainly affected by the bolt instead of the anchor media. Conclusions can be drawn that the propagation velocities of guided wave at optimal frequencies in a free bolt are close to those in the embedded section of the bolt. As a result, the bolt length and the position of flaw in the anchored bolt can be determined by the guided wave velocity in a free bolt and the reflected wave from the bolt end and from the flaw, respectively.