Target image recognition is an important issue in the information processing of imaging fuse system. In the paper, the main frame is proposed which can solve the problem of target image recognition and many computer simulation experiments are carried out. A recognition algorithm based on ant colony optimization and neural network is proposed. It overcomes the shortcomings of traditional BP algorithm and converges fast. The results of experiments prove that the presented algorithm can shorten the training time effectively and increase the accuracy of recognition, so it is very useful in improving the effective destroying ability of the missile.