This paper has proposed a remote water quality monitoring system based on ZigBee. The core of this system is the ZigBee wireless sensor network and GPRS network. Adopting the WSN tree routing structure and false alarm optimization algorithm, it can realize the remote detection and real-time monitoring of water quality. The clients can get access to the present and historical information of water quality conveniently，on which reasonable judgments can be formed to help with the management of water resources. The test in the West Trunk Canal of the Four-Lake Basin shows that the system has a high stability, high efficiency and great expandability.