On the basis of analyzing the typical operating conditions of a vehicle model, 3D model of the rear axle housing was formed by using the Solidworks software, and the stress, strain and the fatigue life of the housing were obtained by using of Cosmos software with the method of finite element analysis. In the effect of alternating stress, the rear axle housing was found existing crack defects. The results showed that the rear axle housing life cycle was improved to over 5.0×105 and satisfied the design requirement. Results provided from tests were compared with the analyses also. It indicated that the proposed method of finite element analysis was a good and efficient method to predict the fatigue life of rear axle housing, which can provide reference for the design of that rear axle housing.