At present, the ballistic Target tracking has a higher demand in convergence rate and tracking precision of filter algorithm. In the paper, a filter algorithm was improved based on particle filter. The algorithm was carried out from the aspects such as particle degradation and particle diversity lack. A novel ballistic coefficient parameter model was built, and was expanded to the state vector for filtering. Finally, the improved algorithm was simulated by MATLAB software. The simulation results show that the algorithm can obtain better convergence speed and tracking precision.