The effects of phosphorus and organic carbon on bacterial growth were investigated in the laboratory. The bacteria sampled from the drinking water network of Tianjin were inoculated into water samples with different content of phosphorus (0～15µg PO43--P/L) and assimilable organic carbon (10～200µgAOC/L). The inoculated water samples were incubated at 20°C. Bacterial growth was monitored in every 2 days in the beginning of cultivation and in every 4 days or more in the later of the cultivation. Results showed that Phosphorus had obvious promotion on bacterial growth, which included shortening the lag phase evidently, increasing the growth rate and the maximum cell count in stationary phase. Carbon can only increase bacterial number. Under oligotrophic condition，when ratio of AOC: P in nutrients of water was more than 100:5, phosphorus was the limiting factor of bacterial growth. The bacterial yield factors against phosphorus and AOC were 1.1×109CFU/µgP and 9.0×107CFU/µgAOC respectively. Phosphorus was more sensitive than AOC. When the phosphorus concentration was less than 0.7µg/L in water samples, it was very difficult for bacteria to obtain phosphorus, and then growth of bacteria was very slowly or in lag phase in the first nine days of incubation time. In drinking water with low concentration of phosphorus (<0.7µg/L) and disinfectants, bacterial regrowth may be controlled. The paper will be Narrated in two parts, “Effects of AOC and Phosphorus on Bacterial Growth under Oligotrophic Condition (1)” and “Effects of AOC and Phosphorus on Bacterial Growth under Oligotrophic Condition (2)”.