Background: Studies show that rapid access to high altitude, the body inevitably will be different degrees of injury, more significant damage to heart and lung [1 ~ 3]. The high altitude hypoxia on the lung tissue to adapt to structural changes and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression of the study rarely reported. The experimental area for a short time brought by the near sea level to higher altitudes rat lung tissue by light, electron microscopy and the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α changes were studied.Objective: To observe the altitude hypoxia on the ultrastructure of lung tissue and the hypoxia inducible factor-la (HIF-1α) expression.Methods: 50 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, namely group 1 d Golmud (altitude 2 700 m), 2 d Tanggula group (altitude 5 000 m), 3 d Nagqu group (altitude 4 500 m) and 30 d Nagqu group (altitude 4 500 m), the control group (in Xi'an, elevation 5 m). 4 time-consuming experimental animals 1 d from Xi'an to the Golmud, Qinghai (altitude 2 700 m), 2 d to the Tibetan Tanggula (altitude 5 000 m), 3 d to the Naqu (altitude 4500 m), 30 d in Tibet Nagqu. Light and electron microscopy of the lung tissue samples, Western Blot method to detect the lung tissue of hypoxia inducible factor-1α expression, RT-PCR method for detection of high altitude hypoxic group, lung tissue expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1αmRNA change. Results and Conclusions: Acute hypoxia 2d Tanggula microstructure and ultrastructure of lung tissue apparent high altitude pulmonary edema, and 30d after hypoxic Nagqu group after high altitude pulmonary edema was significantly reduced lung tissue Western blotting, not Canon See HIF-1α protein expression, RT-PCR detection of HIF-1αmRNA in the 30d Nagqu group, a certain amount of expression, the other three experimental groups HIF-1αmRNA expression was not significant (P> 0.05), 30d Nagqu group HIF-lamRNA expression was significantly higher In the control group (P <0.01). The results confirmed that the lung tissue after hypoxic expression of HIF-1αmRNA increase will help reduce the hypoxic altitude pulmonary edema.