The optimization theory of the motorcycle frame structure was described. The FEM model of the frame structure was established by Hyperworks software, the stress and fatigue stress of the frame structure was analyzed. The frame parts were optimized through the size and topology optimization according to the stress and the displacement. The result showed that the stress of the frame structure changed little comparing with that before, which was in the permitted range of engineering design. The cost of the motorcycle frame structure was reduced, and the frame weight was lightened about 6.5%.