This article proposed a rapid mobile robot self-localization method based on laser data, encoder data and azimuth compass data. This method can avoid tremendous error from pure mileage integral, and tremendous compute task from pure laser data registration after extract laser character. It only based on the similarity of adjacent laser data after pretreatment, then syncretized the estimated rotation angel and parallel displacement from encoder and azimuth compass, find the best transform with quasi Newton method. At last the mobile robot self-localization was realized. Experiment result demonstrated the reliability of this method.