The development of aeroengines with increasing thrust capabilities requires the development of shaft technology to deal with this greater power transmission, whilst still restricting their dimensions and weight. Modern aerospace drive shafts are predominantly of a single-alloy design and significant benefits could be obtained from using a dual alloy shaft, where a high temperature alloy is used at the turbine, i.e. hot, end of the shaft and a high strength alloy is used for the spline end of the shaft, where high strength is required, rather than high temperature performance. Whilst the processes of joining dissimilar materials are widely used the evolution of the joint and its strength characteristics are not fully understood. A program of research has been instigated to lead to an improved understanding of friction welds and their behaviour under monotonic and cyclic loadings with the overall objective to establish confidence in the welding parameters for these material combinations and the associated post-weld heat treatments. This paper presents an overview of the mechanical testing program and the aims of this work, illustrated with some examples from the monotonic and cyclic test work carried out on inertia friction welded dual alloy shaft components.