The faults of rotating machinery are monitored by fixing the sensors on rotor directly, which brings some problems such as difficulty in fixing the sensors, poor universality and so on, while brings some advantages such as rapidness, convenience and good universality and so on by fixing the sensors on the base. The arrangement of sensors on rotating machinery base was designed by taking advantage of the vibration transitivity of rotor-bearing-base, which will provide a new method for fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. The solid model of rotor test bench was built by combining with PROE and ANSYS. The transient analysis of rotor test bench was done, and the vibration response characteristics of base and the arrangement of sensors were obtained. Finally, the validity of the sensor arrangement was verified by experiments.