In order to study the high-temperature performance of composite structure asphalt concrete specimens, cylindrical and plate double-layer specimens with two asphalt mixtures are prepared to conduct uniaxial repeated load permanent deformation test and wheel tracking test. The deformation behavior and mechanical characteristics are analyzed and the relationship between rut deformation and mechanical parameters are also discussed. In addition, according to finite element analysis, the deformation mechanism of composite structures under the same loads was discussed. The results and analysis indicate that the deformation behaviors of the specimens with different structures are different significantly despite the same total thickness. Among those specimens, S（4/6）has the smallest deformation and corresponding mechanical parameter εp/Fn is also the smallest under the same load. The maximum shear stresses and their occurrence in different positions for different composite structures have discrepancies. The maximum shear stress of S（4/6）is smaller than other structures, which appears in the upper layer having better high temperature performance. This is the reason that the resistance to permanent deformation of S（4/6） is best among the three composite structures.