This paper studied misfire diagnosis of diesel engine based on short-time vibration characters. Misfire of diesel engine was simulated by the vibration monitoring test. Cylinder vibration signal and top center signal were collected under different states. The short-time vibration signal of each cylinder was intercepted according to the diesel combustion sequence, effective value was calculated, and BP Neural Network model built with this character was used to diagnose diesel misfire. The result shows that this method can locate the misfire cylinder effectively, and it is meaningful for guiding the detection and repair of vehicles.