Basing on the coupled vibration theory, dynamic characteristics of steel bridge deck thin paving were investigated. Interaction model and coupled vibration partial differential equation were derived for the coupled vibration system of vehicle and bridge-deck-paving. The results obtained from the finite element analysis were compared with those from the field test, and in general, a good agreement was achieved. Effects of load lateral distribution and road roughness and surface crack and cohesive layer condition on the dynamic amplification factor (DAF) were studied. The results show that adding epoxy asphalt as a sub coat can reduce the dynamic amplification factors obviously, which would be designed as the cohesive layer of steel deck thin paving.