Engineering ceramics have been widely used in recent years because of its excellent performances. However, the high hardness and brittleness make it very difficult to process with high efficiency and good quality, especially in precision and ultraprecision machining. Therefore, a method of ultrasonic drilling and grinding is provided to the hole machining of Al¬2O3 engineering ceramics. In the paper, with different machining parameters, the surface roughness of micro hole in ultrasonic and traditional drilling and grinding is compared and analyzed. Moreover, the surface micro profile and the wear condition of drilling-grinding tool in ultrasonic and traditional drilling and grinding are observed through SEM. Finally, it is concluded that ultrasonic drilling and grinding is a kind of high efficient processing method adapting to micro holes of hard - brittle materials etc.