The design and development of a screw-drive in-pipe robot is presented. The robot is composed of power-driving module, walking orientation module, universal joints, and accessories. The application of automatic spring structure on the robot improves its adaptability. The robot is able to move smoothly in the vertical, inclined, or horizontal pipelines, or even when the cross-section of the pipe is not strictly circular. The calculation formulae of robot walking speed and motor driving torque are derived in this paper. According to the geometries at the bend and the motion constraints, the robot turning capacity and turning condition are also analyzed. The vertical, bend, and other tests are performed on the experimental prototype, demonstrating that the screw-drive in-pipe robot provides sufficient tractive forces and good maneuverability and adaptability.