A method for robot indoor navigation based on two-dimensional (2D) barcode landmark is proposed. The scheme constructed on the 2D barcode principle is convenient to operate and easy to recognize landmarks and the barcode have coordinates for their positions and some ability to automatically correct errors. Landmarks are placed over the “ceiling” and photographed by a camera on the robot with its optical axis vertical to the ceiling. Through image segmentation, contour extracting, characteristic curves matching and landmark features identifying, the landmark is located, followed by analyzing the pieces of information about coordinates of the landmark and the deflective angle, with which to compute the robot’s current absolute position and heading angle. This scheme has experimentally demonstrated its effectiveness for robot indoor navigation.