Ant colony algorithm is effective algorithm for NP-hard problems, but it also tends to mature early as other evolutionary algorithms. One improvement method of ant colony algorithm is studied in this paper. Intelligent learning ant colony algorithm with the pheromone difference and positive-negative learning mechanism is brought forward to solve TSP. The basic approach of ant colony algorithm is introduced firstly, then we introduced the individual pheromone matrix and positive-negative learning mechanism into ant colony algorithm. Next the steps of intelligent learning ant colony algorithm are given. At last the effectiveness of this algorithm is proved by random numerical examples and typical numerical examples. It is also proved that intelligent ant and learning mechanism will affect concentration degree of pheromone.