This paper presents the application of modal analysis and parameter identification using data of random vibration test to a cylinder structure. It is deduced that the impulse response function can be substituted by the cross-correlation function computed directly from the response-only data based on the white noise excitation or broadband input. So the modal parameter identification can be done by the least squares complex exponential (LSCE) method. And the modal parameters are obtained from the random vibration test data by the complex exponential method. Compared with the results of traditional modal test, the results of random vibration test are proved to be correct, and also the feasibility of this idea is proved well.