The chemical component, mineral composition and dissemination characteristics of Xuanhua iron ore are researched systematically. The result shows that: the iron ore mainly is oolitic structure and colloform, xenomorphic granular texture, the mineral composition is complex, the primary metallic minerals is hematite, and the rocky minerals mainly is quartz, followed by carbonate, epidote, chlorite, and amphibole. The diffraction size of hematite and rocky minerals is fine. It is difficult to liberate between hematite and rocky minerals and easy to be mud. The iron ore is very hard to separate, and it can be used in the process of stage grinding and concentration.