The band structures of in-plane elastic waves propagating in two-dimensional phononic crystals with one-dimensional aperiodicity are analyzed in this paper. The localization of wave propagation is discussed by introducing the concept of the localization factor that is calculated by the plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method. By treating the aperiodicity as the deviation from the periodicity in a special way, two kinds of aperiodic phononic crystals that have Thue-Morse and Rudin-Shapiro sequence in one direction and translational symmetry in the other direction are considered. The transmission coefficients based on eigenmode match theory are also calculated and the results show the same behaviors as the localization factor does. In the case of Thue-Morse and Rudin-Shapiro structures, the band structures of Thue-Morse sequence exhibit similarities with quasi-periodic sequence not present in the results of Rudin-Shapiro sequence.