Quality characteristics of steel workpiece and their inspection methods are introduced, and the influencing factors of surface quality are analyzed by quality tools. A set of inspection scheme for cutting temperature and cutting force on-line monitoring is worked out. Thin film thermocouple technology was introduced to measure the dynamic temperature which affects the surface quality characteristics of steel workpieces. A system for measuring cutting temperature and cutting force has been developed. A high speed data acquisition card ADlink PCI-9118HG is used to acquire the temperature and force signals. Simple and friendly human-machine interface was programmed with the application of VC++ technology and Tchart controllor to achieve real-time data acquisition, display and analysis of cutting temperature and cutting force. It was concluded from the experiment that the data acquisition and measuring system is easy and flexible to use.