The wear performances of three types of ceramics (ZrO2, Al2O3, Si3N4)/1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel rubbing pairs were analyzed under 0% (pure water), 10%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 90% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solution. The results showed that, under different concentrations of H2O2 solution, the worn surface roughness of the 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel was bigger than that under pure water when the counterpart was ZrO2 ceramic ball, while the worn surface roughness of the 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel was smaller than that under pure water when the counterpart was Al2O3 ceramic ball. For the ZrO2, Al2O3, Si3N4 ceramics ball, the average worn surface roughness of Al2O3 ceramic ball was the smallest, and the average worn surface roughness of Si3N4 ceramic ball was the biggest. When the concentration of H2O2 solution was 10%, the metal particles from the ZrO2/1Cr18Ni9Ti and Al2O3/1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel rubbing pairs had the features with large size and bright surface. The surfaces of the metal particles were oxidized clearly when the concentrations of H2O2 solution were 70% and 90%.