In this paper, an optimization study of partially covered beam with a constrained viscoelastic layer is presented. An energy approach and Lagrange’s method are used to establish the governing equation of motion of a CLD covered beam, and the assumed modes method is employed in solving the equation to obtain the modal loss factors which are used as the objective of optimal layout. A genetic algorithm of big mutation is employed to search for the optimum of the patch’s location, the thicknesses of both the constraining layer (CL) and the viscoelastic layer (VL) and the shear modulus of the viscoelastic material with the restriction of added volume of the total CLD treatment. Numerical results show that the optima of the design variables are highly relevant to each other. The thinner constraining layer requires a softer viscoelastic material for an optimal damping treatment. The variation of the CL thickness decreases slowly and that of the VL thickness increases with the increase of the thickness of the CLD treatment. One end of optimal damping treatment locates closely one end of base beam.