In this paper, the spatial distributions and seasonal dynamics of soil microbes and microbial biomass were investigated in a typical reed marsh in Zhalong natural wetlands.We wanted to explore the main factors that impacted their spatio-temporal patterns. The results showed that: Bacteria were dominant, followed by actinomyces and fungi were at least in the soil microbes community. The seasonal dynamics of soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen were more regularly, and their change patterns were significantly as "W" types. The response of soil microbial biomass in Bottom (10-30cm) to time was slower than the surface, and it fluctuated tinily in every months. The correlation analysis shows that the soil nutrient and soil microbial activity had close relationship. Soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen were all significantly positively correlated to quantities of fungus, organic carbon content and Alkali-hytrolyzabel N content(P<0.01), but negative extremely significantly correlated with pH (P<0.01).