In order to deeply understand the present situation and the main influence factors of Chinese railway survey and design market, the questionnaire investigation was conducted. The descriptive statistics analysis, frequency analysis, correlation analysis and factor analysis have been adopted in data analysis. The results show that the quality level of Chinese railway survey and design can not meet the need of railway construction. The main problems includes: dragging delivery of design documents, poor service quality of site design, inaccuracy of geological data, and inaccuracy of construction quantity. The main cause is the absence of effective incentive and constraint mechanism.