This paper identifies a set of critical assessment indicators (CAIs) that can evaluate the multifaceted benefits of rural infrastructure investment in China. Research data were collected from a questionnaire survey to three groups of experts including government officers, professionals and business practitioners who are working in China’s housing and urban-rural development sector. The Fuzzy Set theory is used for establishing the CAIs, which appreciates the fuzziness of data from the questionnaire survey and thus increases the adequacy in the selection of the CAIs. The CAIs can help the local governments to make better decisions in investing in rural infrastructure in China. These critical indicators can also be generalized to provide valuable references for the investigation of rural infrastructure investment in other developing countries.