The paper is based on non–linear finite element analysis of the blast wave effects on structures, caused by the detonation of explosive materials. Dynamic response of a structure with and without elastomeric layers subjected to the shock wave produced by the detonation of high explosive materials is presented in this paper. Coupled Euler and Lagrange formulation are used in the finite element analysis of such problems to accurately represent the detonation phenomenon. Research related to blast wave propagation is not only aimed at its effect on structures but also on developing new concepts of protective panels. The research carried out on various structures (such as multi–layer panels) has been performed to find out the most efficient protection against a detonation wave. Tests of multi-layer protective panels ability to absorb the explosion energy were also conducted under field conditions and confirmed in numerical studies. The application of structural protective layers made of elastomeric material significantly reduced the blast wave thanks to dissipation capabilities. Additionally, the shape effect of structural steel elements (streamlined profile) during the interaction process with a shock wave has been also confirmed.