Based on an engineering example of a certain shield tunnel passing through an intercity high-speed railway station which has been reinforced by pile-slab structure, this paper adopts finite element numerical simulation to study the influence of shield tunneling construction on the pile-slab reinforced structure and railway subgrade. The research result shows that the horizontal displacement and additional bending moment on both sides of bored piles are increasing in the process of shield tunneling, while those of the middle bored pile firstly increase and then decrease. The vertical displacement and axial force variation of the middle bored pile are more obvious than that on both sides of the bored piles. The settlement and additional bending moment of the reinforced concrete slab are relatively large in the center and midspan of both sides, the position of maximum settlement and negative bending moment is near the concrete slab just above the right tunnel, while the maximum positive bending moment is located in the very middle of the concrete slab. The pile-slab reinforced structure can effectively control the settlement and differential settlement of the intercity railway subgrade caused by shield tunneling, thus the intercity railway can keep normal operation.