The mechanical behavior and ultimate bearing capacity of the circular bar-reinforced concrete filled steel tube (BRCFST) short columns under axial compression are analyzed in this paper based on the unified strength theory. Considering the restriction effect of steel tube and hoop bar on concrete, the calculation formula of bearing capacity of the column is deduced. Parametric studies are carried out to evaluate the effects of intermediate principal stresses, diameter-thickness ratio of steel tube and the stirrup ratio on the bearing capacity of the column. A good agreement is reached by comparing the results calculated by the formula with the test results. It is concluded that the unified strength theory is applicable in the theoretical analyses of the BRCFST columns.