The deep drill string is subjected to many kinds of loading under the condition of vibration and precession, such as tension, compression, bending and torsion, while the temperature and press are very high. Under this circumstance, the shallow drill string is more likely to failure. Based on the force analysis of the drill string, the drilling process of the deep drill string is simulated using finite element software. The stress distribution and displacement of the drill string is obtained under the interaction of drilling pressure, torque and temperature. At the same time, the effect of transverse vibration, longitudinal vibration and torsional vibration, on the stress and displacement of the drill string, is compared. The change law of the natural frequency of transverse vibration varying with the length of drill string, rotational speed and the hole size is discussed. Connected with concrete examples, the reliability and sensitivity of some influencing factors such as external diameter, wall thickness, the minimum yield strength, temperature, elastic modulus, Poisson’s ratio, axial loading and torque is obtained. The main factors that influence the reliability of the drill string are the yield strength and torque. The reliability of the drill string increases as the increase of yield strength, and decreases as the increase of the torque.