With the influence of many factors such as policy, economy and natural environment, large-scale coal enterprises face kinds of risk. The way how to identify and control the risk is becoming the focus of them. From the angle of supply chain link, with the method of questionnaire and on-the-spot investigation, twenty kinds of risk factors are identified and determined. A set of index system of coal supply chain evaluation is established. And the SVM model is used to evaluate the harm degree of risk factors. Risk control solutions-“three-level inventory” risk pre-warning and emergency response mechanism is formulated. The index of evaluation roundly considers risk factors in every link of supply chain. The “three-degree inventory” risk pre-warning and emergency treatments mechanism can provide effective reference for decision-makers.