Highway network operation monitoring and Emergency Management is an innovation which is required by the development of practical highway management process. It targets to promote the whole highway management level and the ability of public service. Based on the analysis of highway management condition and problem in China, and the directive ideas of Ministry of Transport, this article provided a basic orientation of the Highway network operation monitoring and emergency management system, analyzed the functional service of the system and the logical architecture as well as physical architecture, provided the four-layer architecture of Highway network operation monitoring and emergency management centre, which is categorized as national, regional, provincial, and municipal levels. In addition, the thesis also analyzed the system construction operational mechanism, and the data sharing and updating mechanism. The mentioned discuss on the architecture of the Highway network operation monitoring and emergency management system is valuable to the standardization, extendibility, and the sustainability of system construction. Finally, the current works on this system in China are briefly introduced.