Regulating the modes of production and living of urban residents in China is an important measure to cope with environmental changes, and the primary premise is to greatly improve the environmental awareness of urban residents. At present, research on resident’s environmental awareness has been carried out in many cities in China. Nevertheless, little comparative research has been carried out among cities, and there is lack of research on mutual relation and cooperation inside natural regions and the intrinsic relation in adaptability to environment. Therefore, taken the papers collected in CNKI as the data source, the paper has selected the cities in the eastern, central and western region as the objects to in-depth analysis of the present situations and the intrinsic relations between the level of environmental awareness and the adaptability to environment of the urban residents in 3 regions so as to provide reference for the government to formulate relevant management policies. As shown in the research results, the residents in the eastern cities of China have the highest overall level of environmental awareness, followed by the western cities, while that of the central cities is the lowest. In addition, the overall levels in the 3 regions differ greatly from each other. There is certain correlation between the 3 aspects of environmental awareness and 6 factors of adaptability to environmental changes. For example, Lanzhou and Inner Mongolia have the relatively lower environmental awareness with a larger population, which causes the low overall level of their environmental awareness. The educational level and energy-saving and emission-reduction level of Inner Mongolia, Jiaozuo and Suqian are relatively lower with relatively better environmental conditions, leading to relatively lower level of environmental knowledge. Urumchi and Inner Mongolia have a relatively larger population and lower economic level, which cause lower environmental awareness. The public awareness and environmental situations of Jiaozuo and Suqian are relatively better, and therefore the environmental protection there is more desirable. The fact that Shanghai has the highest education is the main reason for the highest comprehensive capacity.