In order to promote building structure to be environmental friendly, light-weight and high-strength, a novel bamboo-steel composite wall is proposed. The composite wall is made up by sticking two pieces of bamboo plywood on the faces of a piece of profiled steel sheet utilizing structural glue. Taking thickness of the bamboo plywood and thickness and corrugation-height of the profiled steel sheet as variables, quasi-static tests were carried out on 5 specimens. Based on experimental phenomena and data, their earthquake resistant properties such as horizontal bearing capacity, ductility and energy dissipation and failure mechanism are analyzed. The results show that the bamboo plywood and profiled steel sheet can effectively work together, the composite walls possess wonderful seismic properties, and that changes of thickness or corrugation-height of profiled steel sheet make very sharp differences to the properties of the walls. Finally, a simplified mechanical model and calculation method for horizontal bearing capacity are proposed according to hysteresis curves within elastic range of these walls. The calculated values match well with the experimental ones.