In order to investigate the rice straw lost weight, degradation products and changes of microbial communities in agriculture solid waste degradation course. The normal temperature microbial community could decompose 40% of rice straw gross weight within six days. Propionic acid, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, 4-Amino-1-butanol, butanoic acid, diethoxydimethyl-silane, lactic acid, ethanol-2,2'-oxybis-, diethyl phthalate and glycerin ten kinds compounds detected by GC-MS in the fermented broth. Degradation products changed lots in different fermented period. For analyzing the diversity of the microbial communities, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) were used to identify the composition diversity. Phylogenetic tree derived from 16S rDNA sequence indicated the microbial community have abundant diversity.