According to the three-factor theory, the surface roughness of different wood-based environmental materials was evaluated using the surface roughness profiling instrument, and the underlying effective factors of the differences were analyzed. The psycho-physiological examination of the materials’ roughness on human psychology and physiology was also carried out. During the examination, physical roughness factors of the materials were treated as the independent variable, and the heart rate variability (HRV) and dynamic blood pressure (DBP) were chosen as the dependent variables. The sympathetic and parasympathetic activities of human autonomic nervous system as toughing material surface were investigated depending on the time domain analysis of HRV. The results showed that there exists a negative linear correlation between the physical roughness of materials and the human psycho-physiologic indexes. Overall, wood materials were proper to physiological stimulate of the body, they can’t cause the risk of physiological imbalance and would soon return to normal mentation after touching. Mental capacity with HRV of the body could illustrate the suitable tactile sense characteristics with the performance of the basic physical quantities of wood materials.