The ages used by humankind can be divided in the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age. In twentieth century instead of one material, a number of diversified materials dominated, and all are diversified. “Right materials in right purposes” was the motto in the last century. In the twenty-first century, the limitation of natural resources and balance of earth have to be considered. Global warming is one of the most important problems in the present world. Materials development and utilization should be done as shown in the model of double helices. Use of comparatively clean nuclear energies is important. Here we discuss the education about the materials from Japanese viewpoint.