With the qualities of smooth operation, high efficiency and small size, the planetary gear box was widely used in transmission field. In this paper, a 2-stage planetary gear box was studied. CAXA and Pro/E were used for modeling. The FEA analysis results were obtained by ANSYS, both the contact stress and the bending stress of the gear tooth root. The results showed that with the continuous action of cyclic loads, the excessive contact stress is the direct reason of the failure. Then, the system reliability evaluation was made, which can provide guidance for engineering practice.