Vibrations during lathe machining include vibrations by a sudden clash of a tool against a workpiece as an external excitation, vibrations by irregular tissues of the workpiece, vibrations by regular excitation due to asymmetric torque, and vibrations by bearing defects. Furthermore, machine tools are heated because most of the supplied energy is transformed to heat and becomes the heat source of the machine tool or an internal heat source. In addition, the spindle is one of the largest internal heat sources. The heat distortion of the spindle by this heat source has the most serious effect on the total heat distortion of the machine tool, and the heat distortion of machine tools is the largest cause of the degradation of cutting precision. In order to obtain accurate data about the causes of such vibrations and heat, this study measured the vibrations and thermal changes of each specimen using a vibrometer and an infrared thermography camera.