Application of BP neural network and NIRS for larch wood density prediction was investigated in this paper. The original spectra were collected and pretreated with the first derivative and 9 point smoothing. Eleven typical wave lengths were selected as BP network inputs to establish prediction model for wood density. Model was validated using cross-validation approach. The prediction correlation coefficient (R) is 0.916 while the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) is 0.0221. The results showed that using BP neural network in near-infrared spectroscopy calibration could significantly improve the model performance in order to rapidly and accurately predict wood density.