Poplar composite biomaterial, which self bonded under high temperature and pressure, is a new indoors materials. In order to evaluate its potential health risk to human settlements, the volatile organic compounds of poplar composite biomaterial were adsorbed and determined by TD-GC-MS. The result were: (1) The main constituents of volatiles at 40°С were acetic acid(50.6%), 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester(8.48%), [1,1':3',1''-terphenyl]-2'-ol(3.98%), 1,2-propanediol, 3-benzyloxy-1,2-d iacetyl-(3.12%), etc. (2) The main constituents of volatiles at 60°С were acetic acid(46.7%), 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester(7.93%), cedrol(5.53%), butane, 1-(benzyloxy)-2-[(benzylox y)methyl]- (5.43%), [1,1':3',1''-terphenyl]- 2'-ol(3.72%), 1-propene, 3-(2-cyclopentenyl)-2-m ethyl-1,1- diphenyl-(3.18%), etc. Generally, the poplar composite biomaterial was safe under 40-60°С.