The “Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana” is a monumental building characterized by a reinforced concrete structure composed of parallel (cast in situ) portal frames and composite (reinforced concrete + hollow bricks floors which spans between adjacent portals: a common construction technique in Italy. The floors being characterised by a large span of about 10.0 meters. The construction took place between 1939 and 1943, most likely according to the Italian building code published in 1939. The authors have coordinated a comprehensive experimental campaign aimed at (a) the identification of the characteristics of the structural materials and members, and (b) the identification of eventual damages. Based upon the experimental results a number of analytical and numerical investigations have been developed in order to assess the structural reliability of the “Palazzo” which up to date still is remains in its “original” configuration, as no substantial intervention of structural retrofit or rehabilitation have been implemented so far. These analysis allowed to identify two major reliability issues: (i) the load bearing capacities of the floors do not allow the intended use, and (ii) the seismic vulnerability of the building does not satisfy the reliability standards required by current codes. On the basis of all data acquired and investigations performed, a simple (non invasive) structural retrofit solution capable of bringing the “Palazzo” to the level of structural safety required by current codes is identified.