Micro-scale laser shock peening (μLSP) is a novel surface modification technique utilizing mechanical effect of shock wave induced by high intensity pulsed laser with micron spots. μLSP can introduce the beneficial residual compressive stress distribution in surface layers of metal with micron-level spatial resolution, and thus enhance wear resistance and fatigue performances of metallic micro-structures. The characteristics and influence factors of μLSP were briefly introduced, and progress in μLSP research fields was reviewed and presented, including laser induced shock pressure, material constitutive relation, changes of mechanical properties and microstructure evolution of materials. Finally, proposals on further investigations of μLSP were brought forward. The systematical characterization will lay the ground work for better understanding the effect of μLSP in microlength level and developing a more practical simulation method.