Groundbreaking work and past standard of surface integrity regarding description, measurement and evaluation of machined components are retrospected. Typical surface integrity characteristics such as surface topography, macro and microstructure, microhardness and residual stress distribution are preferentially adopted for quantitatively describing and systematically evaluating of surface integrity. Corresponding processing conditions and fatigue performance along with surface integrity characteristics are also detailedly classified and digitally defined through meaningful data sets. A framework of surface integrity model for machined components is subsequently proposed and preliminarily established by understanding the nature of surface integrity and its relation with processing parameters and fatigue properties. This pilot study offers a conceptual model as well as some feasible operational approaches for control of surface integrity in cutting technology and consequent improvement of the fatigue life for machined components.