Particleboards bonded with urea formaldehyde (UF) and a combination of UF and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) resins were manufactured using wheat straws modified through different steam explosion treatments. The effect of steam explosion treatment, resin system, and mixing ratios of wood and straw materials on the panel properties was investigated. Generally, with steam explosion treatment of straw fibers, panel properties in bending and internal bond (IB) strength increased, thickness swelling (TS) and water absorption (WA) decreased. The bending properties for the panels made from the straws pretreated with 12 h water-soaking were significantly improved at the UF/MDI content level of 5%/1%. The IB strength dramatically increased, while TS and WA decreased with the use of dual resins. With increased weight ratio of wheat straw to wood particles, the bending properties, IB strength, TS and WA deteriorated. Pure wheat straw boards had the lowest properties. Wood particles in substitution for part of straw materials helped improve the panel properties. The results demonstrated that steam explosion modification and/or its combination with UF/MDI dual resin system can be a feasible approach to improve the bonding strength for wheat straw based particleboards.